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Thursday, 30 March 2017

TV SHOW SERIES HD

http://hd.streameonline.com/tv/tv-881-52-134
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Wednesday, 29 March 2017

https://plus.google.com/116719622496133711408/posts/3FRH57XTXH1
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Wednesday, 22 March 2017

pengertian router

Router adalah perangkat network yang digunakan untuk menghubungkan beberapa network, baik network yang sama maupun berbeda dari segi teknologinya seperti menghubungkan network yang menggunakan topologi Bus, Star dan Ring.  Router minimal memiliki 2 network interface. Dalam postingan sebelumnya tentang mengenal teknik subneting telah disinggung bahwa koneksi antar network (jaringan dengan subnet IP yang berbeda) hanya bisa terjadi dengan bantuan Router.

Gambar diatas merupakan salah satu contoh router yaitu Mikrotik Rb 750 yang merupakan router dengan ukuran kecil dan harga yang terjangkau (sekitar 350 ribuan) yang dapat kita gunakan untuk keperluan koneksi jaringan internet dirumah, warnet atau di kantor. Salah satu kelebihan dari Mikrotik router ini terletak pada kemudahan konfigurasi dan kehandalan fitur dengan harga yang relatif murah. koq jadi promosi :-).

PENGERTIAN ROUTER
Router adalah sebuah alat yang mengirimkan paket data melalui sebuah jaringan atau Internet menuju tujuannya, melalui sebuah proses yang dikenal sebagai routing. Proses routing terjadi pada lapisan 3 (Lapisan jaringan seperti Internet Protocol) dari stack protokol tujuh-lapis OSI.

Router berfungsi sebagai penghubung antar dua atau lebih jaringan untuk meneruskan data dari satu jaringan ke jaringan lainnya. Router berbeda dengan switch. Switch merupakan penghubung beberapa alat untuk membentuk suatu Local Area Network (LAN).

Sebagai ilustrasi perbedaan fungsi dari router dan switch merupakan suatu jalanan, dan router merupakan penghubung antar jalan. Masing-masing rumah berada pada jalan yang memiliki alamat dalam suatu urutan tertentu. Dengan cara yang sama, switch menghubungkan berbagai macam alat, dimana masing-masing alat memiliki alamat IP sendiri pada sebuah LAN

Router sangat banyak digunakan dalam jaringan berbasis teknologi protokol TCP/IP, dan router jenis itu disebut juga dengan IP Router. Selain IP Router, ada lagi AppleTalk Router, dan masih ada beberapa jenis router lainnya. Internet merupakan contoh utama dari sebuah jaringan yang memiliki banyak router IP.

Router dapat digunakan untuk menghubungkan banyak jaringan kecil ke sebuah jaringan yang lebih besar, yang disebut dengan internetwork, atau untuk membagi sebuah jaringan besar ke dalam beberapa subnetwork  untuk meningkatkan kinerja dan juga mempermudah manajemennya. Router juga kadang digunakan untuk mengoneksikan dua buah jaringan yang menggunakan media yang berbeda (seperti halnya router wireless yang pada umumnya selain ia dapat menghubungkan komputer dengan menggunakan radio, ia juga mendukung penghubungan komputer dengan kabel UTP), atau berbeda arsitektur jaringan, seperti halnya dari Ethernet ke Token Ring.

Router juga dapat digunakan untuk menghubungkan LAN ke sebuah layanan telekomunikasi seperti halnya telekomunikasi leased line atau Digital Subscriber Line (DSL). Router yang digunakan untuk menghubungkan LAN ke sebuah koneksi leased line seperti T1, atau T3, sering disebut sebagai access server. Sementara itu, router yang digunakan untuk menghubungkan jaringan lokal ke sebuah koneksi DSL disebut juga dengan DSL router. Router-router jenis tersebut umumnya memiliki fungsi firewall untuk melakukan penapisan paket berdasarkan alamat sumber dan alamat tujuan paket tersebut, meski beberapa router tidak memilikinya. Router yang memiliki fitur penapisan paket disebut juga dengan packet-filtering router. Router umumnya memblokir lalu lintas data yang dipancarkan secara broadcast sehingga dapat mencegah adanya broadcast storm yang mampu memperlambat kinerja jaringan.

CARA KERJA ROUTER

Fungsi utama Router adalah merutekan paket (informasi). Sebuah Router memiliki kemampuan Routing, artinya Router secara cerdas dapat mengetahui kemana rute perjalanan informasi (paket) akan dilewatkan, apakah ditujukan untuk host lain yang satu network ataukah berada di network yang berbeda.

Jika paket-paket ditujukan untuk host pada network lain maka router akan meneruskannya ke network tersebut. Sebaliknya, jika paket-paket ditujukan untuk host yang satu network maka router akan menghalangi paket-paket keluar. 

Ilustrasi mengenai cara kerja router ini dapat dilihat pada gambar dibawah:

Pada gambar diatas terdapat 2 buah network yang terhubung dengan sebuah router. Network sebelah kiri yang terhubung ke port 1 router mempunyai alamat network 192.168.1.0 dan network sebelah kanan terhubung ke port 2 dari router dengan network address 192.155.2.0
  • Komputer A mengirim data ke komputer C, maka router tidak akan meneruskan data tersebut ke network lain.
  • Begitu pula ketika komputer F mengirim data ke E, router tidak akan meneruskan paket data ke network lain.
  • Barulah ketika komputer F mengirimkan data ke komputer B, maka router akan menruskan paket data tersebut ke komputer B.
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Articles on Computer Science


Computers used by humans by studying the science related to the computer. Along with the development of Computer Science, today a lot of researchers are trying to make a study and carry out the definition of the Computer Science. However, the basis of Computer Science is a math and engineering (engineering). Math donate methods of analysis, and engineeringmenyumbangkan design methods in this field.

CSAB (Computing Sciences Accreditation Board, http://www.csab.org) makes an interesting definition of Computer Science: Computer Science is the science related to computers and computing. Inside are teoritika, experimentation, and designing components, and including matters relating to: Theories to understand the computer device, program, and system Experiments for the development and testing of concepts Design methodologies, algorithms, and tools to make it happen The analytical methods to prove that the realization is in conformity with the requirements requested. Algorithms and Data Structures (Algorithms and Data Structures) Architecture (Architecture) Software Engineering (Software Engineering) Artificial Intelligence and Robotics (Artificial Intelligence and Robotics) Human and Computer Interaction (Human Computer Interaction) Informatics Organization (Organizational Informatics) Programming Languages ​​(Programming Languages) Operating Systems and Networks (Operating Systems and Networks) Database and Information Retrieval System (Database and Information Retrieval Systems) Computer Graphics (Computer Graphics) Computational Science (Computational Sciences) Bioinformatics (Bioinformatics) Information Science is the study of data and information, including how to interpret, analyze, store, and retrieve. Science began as the basis of information communication and database analysis. Software Engineering emphasizes analysis, design, and construction of software using tools and new ways of working. The information system is a computer application to support the operations of an organization: operating, installation, and maintenance of computers, software, and data. Management Information System is a key field that emphasizes the financial and personal management. Computer engineering is the study of the analysis, design, and construction of computer hardware. Information Security is the study of the analysis and implementation of information system security (including cryptography). Some other, more abstract definitions are: Computer Science is the study of the representation pengatahuan (knowledge representation) and its implementation. Another definition or Computer Science is the study of abstraction and how to manage the complexity of a computer. Peter J. Denning define Computer Science in a paper which is quite popular on the computer science discipline. This paper is the final report of the project and the task force on the Core of Computer Science formed by two of the largest scientific society in computing, namely ACM (http://acm.org) and the IEEE Computer Society (http://computer.org) , He defines that: Computer Science is the systematic study of algorithmic processes that describe and transform the information, whether it relates to theories, analysis, design, efficiency, implementation, or applications that are available to him. Denningsjuga classify computer science and is divided into 12 subfields (the previous version is 9 subfields), namely: Denningsmemberi special note to the field of bioinformatics as a new field which is a combination of Computer Science and Biology, and is currently experiencing significant growth. Because of the sophistication of computer technology continues to evolve, then from 12 subfields of the above is possible continues to grow. Compared with CSAB definition above, Dennings illustrates that computer science can be reflected in three ways: Theory (Theory), Abstraction (Abstraction), and Design (Design).
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TV SHOW SERIES HD

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Thursday, 16 March 2017

Understanding Computer Networks and Benefits

Understanding Computer Networks and Benefits

What is the definition of computer network? Perhaps this question often arises among computer users. And, this time the author will try to give an explanation of what is meant by a computer network. In this paper, the discussion which will include, among others: definition, benefits, and kind. OK, he's just this sense, the benefits and types of computer networks.

Understanding Computer Networks
The computer network is a network that is used to connect multiple computers within a scope of technology. That is, a computer network, there is a set of computer tools including additional hardware. Of some components earlier, served to connect computer networks to one another.

benefits, understanding, computer network
Image source: Google Images

The main purpose of the establishment of a computer network is to exchange data and information. Typically, large companies use it for internal purposes of the company in order to flourish. Read also understanding and printer functions.

Benefits of Computer Networking
To share resources, including data and important information
To facilitate communication among members of the
To access the information simultaneously and quickly
To expand the utilization of the device operating system
To simplify management computer
Types of Computer Networks
Computer networks can be divided into several types. In addition, the type of computer network can also be viewed from various aspects. Here are reviews of computer networks:

Types of computer networks based on the range
LAN (local area network) network of computers that have a fairly narrow range. Usually used in offices, campuses, schools, and areas other not too large.
MAN (metropolitan area network), a computer network with a range of around 50 kilometers. These networks are often used by companies or schools within a considerable distance, such as between cities.
WAN (wide area network), a computer network that reaches wide enough to interstate.
Internet (interconnected network), a computer network with seamless access around the world.
Types of computer networks by function
Client-server, a computer network that requires in which there is a special computer device. Is the client computer and the server computer, two computer devices that should exist in the client-server networks that have different functions.
Peer-to-peer, namely computer network computer devices have the same base. In a sense, all computer can be a server or client simultaneously.
The type of computer network based topology
bus topology
ring topology
tree topology
mesh topology
linear topology
The type of computer network based media transmission
Wired computer network (wired network) network of computers using either wired transmission media when the exchange of data between computers.
Wireless computer networks (wireless network) network of computers that do not use a cable (called LAN) when the exchange of data and information.
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Various Kinds of Computer Network Topology

Various Kinds of Computer Network Topology1. Ring TopologyIn the ring topology each computer connecting to another computer, and so on until it returns again to the computer first, and form a circle so called ring, this topology communicate using the data token to control access rights computers to receive data, such as a computer 1 will send the file to the computer 4 , then the data will pass through the computer 2 and 3 to be received by the computer 4, so a computer will resume sending data if the destination is not the IP address him.Network topologyThe advantages of the computer network ring topology is the ease of installation and the installation process, the amount of the lan cable slightly thus saving costs.The most fatal shortcomings of this topology is, if one of the computers or its cable problematic, then the data transmission will be interrupted even error.
2. Bus TopologyComputer network topology bus organized as a queue and use only one coaxial cable and each computer connected to the cable using BNC connectors, and both ends of the coaxial cable to be terminated by a terminator.Network topologyThe advantages of the bus is almost the same with the ring, the cable used is not a lot and saves installation costs.Shortage of bus topology in case of trouble or problems on one computer can disrupt other computer networks, and for this topology is very difficult to detect disturbances, frequent occurrence of data queue, and if the distance is too far away to be using repeaters.
 3. Star TopologyThis topology is formed like a star because all computers connected to a hub or switch with a UTP cable, so that the hub / switch was the center of the network and served to control data traffic, so if the computer 1 wants to send data to the computer 4, the data will be sent to switch and immediately send it to the destination computer without passing through another computer. Computer network topology is the most widely used today because of its advantages more.Network topologyThe advantages of this topology is very easy to detect where the computer is broken, it is easy to perform addition or subtraction without disturbing the other computer, and the security level of data higher.The drawback of this computer is the network topology, requires a high cost for installation, as it requires a lot of wires and switches / hubs and network stability is highly dependent on the central terminal, so that if the switch / hub impaired, then the entire network will be disrupted.4. Mesh TopologyIn this topology each computer will be connected to another computer in the network using a single cable, so the data transmission process will directly reach the destination computer without going through another computer or a switch or hub.understanding of computer network topologyKelebihanya is the delivery process faster and without going through another machine, if a computer crashes will not interfere with other computers.Disadvantages of this topology is clear, it will take very much cost because it requires enormous amount of wiring and each computer must have a Port I / O are many, besides the installation process is very complicated.
 5. Topology TreeComputer network topology Tree is a combination of some of the star topologies by connecting the bus topology, so any star topology will be connected to a star topology the other using a bus topology, usually in this topology there are several levels of network, and the network is at a higher level can control network which is at a lower level.types of computer network topologyExcess tree topology is easy to find a fault and also easily make changes to the network if necessary.Its shortcomings are using a lot of wiring, frequent crashes and slow, if something goes wrong on the network level is high, then low-level network will be disrupted as well.There's more topology that I have not discussed above, but here are some frequently used topology, choose the topology that suits your needs and hopefully this article 
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computer History

History of computer networks stems from the birth of the concept of computer networks in the 1940s in the United States that was initiated by a computer development project MODEL I at the Bell labs and research group led by Harvard University professor Howard Aiken.

At first, the project is only wanted to use a computer device that must be shared. To do some processing without wasting lots of free time made the process of succession (Batch Processing), so that multiple programs can be run on a computer with the rules of the queue.

Then in the 1950s when the types of computers began to grow until the creation of a super computer, a computer should serve a few places available (terminal), for it is found the concept of time-based distribution process known as TSS (Time Sharing System).

So for the first time form a network (network) computer applied. In the TSS system several terminals connected in series to a computer or other device connected to a network (host) computer.

In the process of TSS is starting to look a blend of computer technology and telecommunications technology that was originally developed in own-sendiri.Departemen Defense, U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) decided to conduct research that aims to connect several computers so as to form an organic network in 1969.

This research program known as ARPANET.Pada 1970, already more than 10 computers are successfully connected to each other so that they can communicate with each other and form a network. And in 1970 it was also after the work load increases and the price of a large computer devices starting to feel very expensive, then start to use the concept of the distribution process (Distributed Processing) .In this process multiple host computers doing a great job in parallel to serve multiple terminals connected in series in each host computer.

In the process of distribution has been absolutely necessary blend of deep between computer technology and telecommunications, since in addition to the process that must be distributed, all host computers must serve terminals within a single command from the central computer.



 In 1972, Roy Tomlinson managed to complete an electronic mail program (email) he made a year ago to ARPANET.Program is so easy to use, it immediately became populer.Pada the same year ie 1972, the icons at (@) was also introduced as an important symbol that shows the "at" or "on" .Tahun 1973, ARPANET computer network was developed extends beyond the United Serikat.Komputer University College in London is the first computer that is outside the United States who are members of ARPAnet network. In the same year, namely 1973, two computer experts that Vinton Cerf and Bob Kahn presented a larger idea, which became the forerunner of thought International Network (Internet) The idea was presented for the first time at the University of Sussex. [5] The next historic day is dated March 26, 1976, when the Queen of England succeeded in sending electronic mail from the Royal Signals and Radar Establishment in Malvern.

A year later, already more than 100 computers on ARPANET joined to form a network or network.



Tom Truscott, Jim Ellis and Steve Bellovin, creating the first-named newsgroups USENET (User Network) in 1979.Tahun 1981, France Telecom creates something new with the launch of the first television phone, where people can call each other which is also associated with video link.

Along with the increase of computers that form a network, it takes a formal protocol that can be recognized and accepted by all networks.

To that end, in 1982 established a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or better known as Internet Protocol (IP) that we know up to now ini.Sementara, in Europe appears a similar network known as Europe Network (Eunet) covering the Netherlands, Britain, Denmark, and this Eunet Swedia.Jaringan provide electronic mail and USENET newsgroups.

To homogenize the address on existing computer networks, then in 1984 the Domain Name System or domain name system, which is now known by DNS. A computer connected to the existing network has more than 1000 computers. In 1987, the number of computers connected to the network soared 10-fold to 10,000 more.

Computer networking continues to grow in 1988, nationality Finnish Jarkko Oikarinen a finding as well as introducing Internet Relay Chat, or better known as the IRC that allows two or more computer users can interact directly with messaging (chat). As a result, year to
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computer server

Defintion of Computer Server

 
Have you ever heard the term of computer server?  Maybe once and not infrequently you’re wondering about the definition, usability, and its parts. Indeed, what is a server computer? It is a computer with a particular service on a network. This computer is like a parent who store and manage information, and distribute to other computers in order to be used together.

This type of computer is used either in the Internet or in an intranet network. In general, this computer will operate for 24 hours without stopping in order to provide maximum service to the users. It also has a working system has a server computer specs that are much different from the client computer. It must be great to many times to be able to provide long-term duration of service and quality remains.
 
Good specs certainly not just on the outside or the hardware, but the software is also included. This is evidenced through the operating system owned by the server with a special design. Some of them are as follows:
 
1. Microsoft Windows Server 2008
2. Sun Solaris
3. UNIX
4. Redhat Linux
 

Components of Server

 
Components of the server computer consist of a wide variety of hardware together with regular components in the client computer. Nevertheless, the components on the server as well as a class have a much higher quality because it will function with many compositions. The following explanation will tell you what these components are.
 
Motherboard
 
The motherboard is a circuit board inside a computer with all the components in your computer be connected. This is the core of a computer that is referred to as ‘ mother ‘.
 
The main components on the motherboard including the processor (CPU), a circuit called the chipset, memory, expansion slots, IDE hard drive controllers, and input / output ( I / O ) ports for devices such as keyboard, mouse, and printer. Some motherboards also have additional features such as graphics adapters, SCSI disk controller, or network interface.
 
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Processor
 
The processor, or CPU, is the brain of the computer. Although the processor is not the only component that affects the overall system performance, but this is the first component of people think of when they want to buy a computer server. Intel has four processor models are designed and used in the server computer :
 
Itanium 2 : a clock speed of 1.60GHz, the processor cores 1-2
Xeon : 1.83 – 2.33GHz clock speed, processor cores 1-4
Pentium D : 2.66 – 3.6GHz clock speed, 2 -core processor
Pentium 4 : 2.4 – 3.6GHz clock speed, 1 core processor
 
Memory
 
When you want to have a category of computer servers, then do not make too much savings. Many types of memory available, so you need to choose the right type of memory to match the memory supported by the motherboard. Total memory capacity of the server depends on the motherboard. Most new servers can support 12GB of memory, and some can support up to 32GB.
 
Hard drives
 
Most desktop computers use a cheap hard drive called IDE drives (sometimes also called ATA). The drive is enough for individual users, but because the performance is more important for a server, other types of drives are known as SCSI is typically used instead. For best performance, use SCSI drives with a SCSI controller card.
 
Recently, a new type of so-called cheap SATA drives has appeared on a desktop computer. SATA drives are also being tested continuously for computer servers.
 
The network connection
 
The network connection is one of the most important parts of any server. Many servers have a network adapter built into the motherboard. If your server is not equipped with it, you will need to add an adapter card for a separate network.
 
Power supply
 
Because the server usually has more devices than regular desktop computers, would require greater power (300 watts in general). If the server has a hard drive in smaller amounts, may require greater power.
 

The Functions of Computer Servers

 
After I provide an understanding of an existing operating system on the server computer. Now it’s time to switch to a function or usefulness of the server itself. There are several functions that can be found on this server, among others, are as follows.
 
Application server
 
This server has the function to store a wide variety of applications that will be accessed by the client computer. For example, the central computer or server stores online application transaction that can later be used on the intranet or internet.
 
Proxy
 
Proxy server is a function of a meaningful set of network traffic with proxy settings. Many people are more familiar with the proxy server in order to connect between the client computer with the internet.
 
Database server
 
Provides access to the database is one of the most important functions of a computer server. A relational database storage structure information is compact and efficient, and allows quick access to large volumes of data.
 
In a business office setting, a database can be used to store the contact details of the customer and order information, as well as shipping and payment notes. By accessing the server via a local network, multiple employees can retrieve and update information from the database throughout the day as the business is conducted.
 
There are several popular database systems, including Oracle Database, Microsoft SQLServer and MySQL open-source database.
 
Printer server
Used to set the printer to work on a network. This is what causes the printer to be used by a wide variety of computers and are connected in a network.
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